Theories of Instructional Design Chart

Part 1:  Theories of Instructional Design Chart

Standard and learning objective: 



Theory #1 Andragogy


Theory #2 Behaviorism

Description of the Theory The theory is used in teaching adults and is opposite to the pedagogy used for teaching children. The learner has the autonomy of carrying out tasks with little help from the instructor. The instructor provides the basics of the learning but lets the learner be hands o when it comes to learning activities (Allen, 2016) The theory focuses on observable behaviors other than mental processes. It uses positive and negative reinforcement and operant and classical conditioning where the learner follows what the instructor does. Instructor uses prompts to elicit particular behavior.
Key Concepts of the Theory Learner is intrinsically motivated

The instructor respects the autonomy of the learner and respects their experiences

Learners want to know how the learning will help them and require task oriented learning that is in line with their life situations

Learners are self directed and bring prior knowledge and experiences to the learning


Focuses on observable behavior

Instructor has the goal of fostering certain behaviors

It involves repetition, questions and positive/negative feedback when needed (Allen, 2016)


What is the role of the instructor? The instructor takes up the role of facilitator and only guides the learner through the learning process when needed The instructor imposes the knowledge and points of view on the learner. They affect the learned behavior through prompts and use of feedback
What is the role of the student? The learner is the agent of the learning process The student is often the object of learning.

(What do you want students to know through the learning objective?)


Traditional Setting: learners should know that they should use their own experience and knowledge and apply it to situations in the classroom and expect less influence from the instructor despite their physical presence in the classroom.

Distance-Learning Environment: The learners should now that they are able to discover things for themselves virtually and through the internet. The utilization of social media and online collaboration leads to social development

Traditional Setting: Learners have to know that they can only receive positive reinforcement and praise from the instructor if they are able to imitate the instructor’s actions in the learning environment


Distance-Learning Environment: Learners should know that despite the distance, it is possible to have communication and interaction with the instructor through use of technology. That affects the type of behavior they adopt.


(How the students will demonstrate their knowledge use the particular theory)


Traditional Setting: Learners are able to perform tasks on their own and carry out their research through the institutional library without much influence from the instructor. The learners are also able to guide themselves through tasks related to previous experiences and knowledge

Distance-Learning Environment: Learners are able to use online databases as a research tool for information regarding a particular topic. The learners are also able to use internet tools without influence from the instructor and successfully complete required tasks of learning

Traditional Setting: They are able to obtain the learning objective and respond to prompts that are given by the instructor


Distance-Learning Environment: The students are able to follow step by step procedures in completing online tasks using examples provided by the instructor.

A recommendation for incorporating technology

(Technology recommendation based on the learning theory)



Traditional Setting: In this setting, the most recommended technology is the use of digital files in the classroom other than traditional print out books. The use of PDF readers and e-book readers in the traditional setting could help students gather more information rapidly. Simulation technologies could also allow learners to simulate what they learn as though in the real world.

Distance-Learning Environment: Distant learners could incorporate technologies such as internet search engines and educational databases that will give them access to information relevant to their learning.

Traditional Setting: The use of computer based presentations and projection technologies while conditioning learners to particular behaviors.



Distance-Learning Environment: Virtual Learning technology is essential as it will allow communication and interaction of learner with the tutor on a real time basis. The theory involves conditioning of the learner to certain behaviors and thus the need for instructor’s presence, physically or virtually. The use of Web 2.0 technology will help accomplish objectives of the theory





Part 2: Reflection



Technology is an important aspect of learning. Adult learning in modern day incorporates technology as a way of making the learning process easier and more effective. Traditional settings and online based learning make use of technology to pass information and knowledge to the learner. Different adult learning theories determine the technologies that are used in the learning process. A theory such as andragogy creates autonomy for the learner and they are able to carry out tasks on their own with little to no influence from the instructors.


In traditional setting technology is used as a way of conveying information. In light of the behavioral learning theory, technologies such as the Web 2.0 can be used to persuade adult learners to adapt to particular favorable behavior (Widyasari et al., 2019). Technology is also used in the traditional educational settings to monitor the progress that learners are making in obtaining new knowledge. A good example is the use of applications such as EndNotes and PowerPoint presentations in the classroom settings to instill or encourage particular learning behaviors. Instructors use such technologies to direct their learners towards emulating certain actions. In a distance learning setting, behavioral theory could use technologies such video conferencing to help teach learners the appropriate behaviors that the instructor requires (Western Governors University, 2020). A great example is the use of Zoom classes and calls to ensure that the students are on the right track. The instructor is able to give positive/negative feedback to the learner on a real time basis.

On the other hand andragogy uses an array of technologies such as educational platforms and blackboards for distance learning. Blackboards help the adult learners get the direction that their learning should take. The technology however leaves it up to the learner to plan their studies and how they will complete their course within the given deadline. Distance learning using the andragogy could also make use of technologies such as online educational databases. The learners are responsible for their own learning and often rely on prior knowledge and experiences. Such databases thus act as a source of reference to what the learners already know. The learners could also use the internet technology to cite sources and understand what sources are credible and which ones are not.  The use of technology in the traditional setting and the distance learning setting is different (Constantakis, 2016). Traditional setting technologies are mostly used in the presence of the instructor who offers guidelines on how to go about the technology. Distance learning technologies on the other hand must be user friendly as the learner most of the time has to figure out how to use such technologies on their won. The technologies in distance learning must also meet all the requirements of the learner such as being compatible with multiple devices and being accessible at different locations globally.

The findings from this analysis will influence future professional practice when dealing with adult populations in institutions of higher learning. It will enable me to differentiate learners and the learning theories that are most appropriate to each class. The information will also be a factor that will determine the types of technologies incorporated in the practice depending on the type of setting.


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