Cardiovascular diseases are those diseases that affect the blood vessels and the heart. It should be noted that cardiovascular diseases and disorders are easily manageable because the first step is to accurately identify all those who are at risk of suffering from cardiovascular disorders and then effectively managing the risk factors that put them in danger of getting cardiovascular complications later on in life (Murphy, Xu, Kochanek & Arias, 2018). From the case study, Patient AO has a history of obesity and has recently gained 9 pounds. The patient has been diagnosed with hypertension and hyperlipidemia. Hypertension, or as it is commonly known as high blood pressure, refers to the medical condition whereby the blood pressure in the arteries of an individual is persistently high while on the other hand, hyperlipidemia refers to the condition where an individual has too many lipids such as triglycerides and cholesterol in their blood. Genetics has been proven to play a critical role in causing high blood pressure as well as hyperlipidemia.
Over the years, the genetics of a person changes, and this leads to the development of mutations in genetic coding regions in the body, which eventually leads to changes in protein structure as well as gene expression. These changes, in turn, lead to increased variations in the quality and quantity of proteins, which play an important role in the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes of the human body. Genetic polymorphisms have been known to negatively affect the pharmacokinetic processes of the body because of the ability of the genes to transport the drugs to the drug receptors (Rosenthal & Burchum, 2017). Genetic factors in the body help in regulating the salt and fluid balance in the body and are often affected by high blood pressure and hyperlipidemia, which interfere with the structural integrity of the protein receptors, thereby decreasing the effects of the medication on the patient.
With the increased risk of obesity that Patient OA has and the reduced pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes of the body of the patient, the recommended drug therapy of the patient will be affected. Medication such as Simvastatin, which is often recommended to be taken alone, will be rendered ineffective while being taken with the other medication. Sertraline has been known to have linear pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, with the peak concentration of the medication in the bloodstream occurring after 4-8 hours after taking a single dose of the drug orally. Also, Sertraline has a half-life of approximately 24 hours. The medication does not have any significant effect on the blood pressure of the patient but has a significant effect on the weight of the patient over a period of time.
The best way of improving the recommended drug therapy of Patient OA is by withdrawing Sertraline from his medication because it will have adverse effects on the body over a prolonged period of time (Rachdi, Damak, Romdhane, Ouertani & Cheour, 2019). Modern science has proven that there is a definitive link that exists between Sertraline and potential weight gain. However, not every patient is affected by Sertraline. However, the medication should be withdrawn from Patient OA’s drug therapy because the patient has a known history of obesity, and the drug could act as a risk factor to the genetic predisposition that the patient has towards obesity.