HS311 Epidemiology and Biostatistics I

1. Mortality
A mortality rate is the number of deaths caused by a specific cause for a population. I
found a published study from an article called “Trends in Infant Mortality in the United States,
2005–2014” This study was performed from 2005-2014 on infant mortality rate. The data was
collected from the National Vital Static System (NVSS) the data contain information from birth
to infant death and this data gave detailed trends in infant mortality rate in the United States by
race, Hispanic origin, state, and the cause of infant death from 2005 to 2014. The infant mortality
rate had declined from 2005 to 2014 tremendously from thirty-three states and no changes in the
other seven states. The main cause of infant death the study showed was Congenital
Malformation. The study showed that the infant mortality rate decreased by 11% from 2005 to
2014 during that time. The second leading cause of infant death was short gestation and low birth
weight. The infant mortality rate decreases by 8% from 2005 to 2014 with this cause of death
(Matthews & Drescall, 2017). The data from the NVSS proved that from the year 2005 to 2014
infant mortality rate was higher in Non- Hispanic black women and the lowest rate in Asian or
Pacific Islander women (API). The infant mortality rate decreased in two–thirds of the United
States and the other states had no change in their infant mortality rate over the past several years.


2. Morbidity
The morbidity rate is the rate at which a disease occurs in a population. Utilizing the
morbidity rate is a good source for a population to measure the quality of healthcare in a specific
population. A study was done in Mississippi on diabetes in the Mississippi population. The
statistics show that females are more likely to be affected by diabetes more likely than men.
Women between the ages 65 to older or the most likely to be affected by diabetes, secondly, the
age between 45 to 64, and lastly, the age 18 to 44. The study revealed that black African
Americans are affected by diabetes more likely than white Caucasians. A person’s education level
plays a major part in being affected with diabetes as well. Adults with no education to a high
school diploma, compared to someone with more education experience are more likely to be
affected by diabetes (America’s Health Rankings, 2021). The lifestyle a person lives will help
prevent the risk of being affected by diabetes. Staying healthy and exercise more often will
prevent the risk of contracting diabetes. Stay active and watch what you eat.
3. Incidence
Incidence rates or risks are the total number of ill cases of a specific disease divided by
the population at risk when the observation of a study starts. Heart disease is the main disease
most United States citizens die from. A study done by the CDC’s National Vital Statistics
Surveillance System (NVSS), this system collects heath data of birth and deaths that occurs in
the United States. Researches have done a study from the article “Heart Disease Rates among
Black and Whites Aged greater than 35 years in the United States from 19685-2015” After
reviewing this study, the study shows the mortality rate of heart disease from the years 1968 to
2015 of U.S. citizens that died from heart disease. The researches collected data from 1968-2015
of heart disease mortality death rate of U.S. residents population of a group of adults from age 35
years or older from 1, 0345.5 per 100,000 population. The death rates of U.S. citizens decreases
by race and states with a total of 2.4% per year. The mortality death rate from heart disease
increased with the white population by 2.4% per year and the black population by 2.2% per year
( Van Dyke, M., Greer, S., Odom, E., Schieb, L., Vaughan, A., Kramer, M., & Casper, M, 2018).
The heart disease death rate for both races black and white ere the same at the beginning of the
researches study, but in 1970’s the death rates changed slightly. Overall, the heart disease death
rates decreased from black and white races from 1968 to 2015. Heart disease death rates are
continuing to be monitored and recorded so the trends of the death rates can be seen on a national
and state level.
4. Prevalence
Prevalence is the proportion of a population who have certain traits in a given time, and
researches randomly selects a group from a population they found interesting to observe.
Prevalence is the number of people in a sample with a certain feature of interest, divided by
the total number of people of the sample. A cross sectional study was performed from 2014-
2018 of 845,264 adults who were bisexual, heterosexual, gay, or lesbian. These sexual men
and women were interacting and prevalence of skin cancer. The study revived that skin
cancer prevalence were higher for both gay and bisexual men compared to heterosexual men.
The skin cancer stats were lower with bisexual women, but not with the gay or lesbian
women (Singer, S., Tkachenko, E., Hartman, R. I., & Mostaghimi, A, 2020). Overall, gay and
bisexual men showed an increase of skin cancer prevalence with heterosexual men. Several
risk behavioral organizations in the community of these sexual men and women really trying
to focus on what they can do to decrease the prevalence of skin cancer amongst these sexual
minority. The organization wants to help these men and women by improving the stop of skin
cancer and letting the spread of this disease affects the population. Creating more behavioral
risk factors throughout the community and providing a gender reveal will educate and help
the community to understand the health and wellbeing of sexual minority in the population
((Singer, S., Tkachenko, E., Hartman, R. I., & Mostaghimi, A, 2020).

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